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MS- 222


Because it is acid in solution, buffering is recommended with imidazole, sodium hydroxide, or sodium phosphate. MS222 administration may reduce fish blood pH, and unbuffered solutions may cause an increase in Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), hypercholinesteremia, and increased ACTH production. Store in a cool, dry place. Handle with caution (use gloves).

Recommended Dosages:
(species/water quality dependent)

- Anesthesia 50-100 mg/L
- Surgery 50-200 mg/L
- Overdose 100-400 mg/L

Download a MSDS



Click here for a Necropsy worksheet PDF.
Click here for a MSDS worksheet PDF


Neutral Buffered Formalin

10% neutral buffered formalin (good for general histology of soft tissue)

Recipe for 1 liter:

- 100 ml formaldehyde (37%)
- 900 ml deionized water
- 4 grams sodium phosphate, monobasic (NaH2PO4)
- 6.5 grams sodium phosphate, dibasic (Na2HPO4)

Note: "full-strength formaldehyde is actually 37-40% active ingredient. When a 10% solution of formaldehyde is made, it is called formalin. Although often called 10% formalin, formalin is actually 3.7-4.0% formaldehyde.


General References:

A Classification System for Histological Lesions. 1992. R. Reimschuessel, R.O. Bennett and M.M. Lipsky. J. Aquat. Animal Health. 4:135-143.

Aquariology (master volume): The Science of Fish Health Management. 1992. J.B. Gratzek and J.R. Mathews, editors. Tetra Press, Morris Plains, NJ.

Bacterial Fish Pathogens. 1987. B. Austin and D.A. Austin. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England.

Common and Scientific Names of Fishes (From the United States and Canada), 5th edition. 1991. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication No. 20. Bethesda, MD.

Fish and Invertebrate Culture, 2nd edition. 1979. S. Spotte. Wiley-Interscience Publications, New York.

Fish Medicine. 1992. M. Stoskopf, editor. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Fish Pathology, 2nd edition. 1989. R.J. Roberts. Bailliere Tindall, London, England.

Fish Physiology (series). Hoar and Randall, editors. Academic Press, New York.

Fish Viruses and Fish Viral Diseases. 1988. K. Wolf. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Histology Atlas: Normal Structure of Salmonids. 1992. A.B. Amin, L. Mortensen and T.T. Pope. Akvapatologisk Laboratorium AS, Bodo, Norway.

Microbial Diseases of Fish. 1982. R.J. Roberts. Academic Press, New York.

Necropsy Examination of Fish. 1988. R. Reimschuessel, E.B. May, R.O. Bennett and M.M. Lipsky. Vet. Clin. N. America 18(2):427-433.

Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes. 1967. G.L. Hoffman. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Principal Diseases of Marine Fish and Shellfish, 2nd edition. 1990. Volumes 1 and 2. C.J. Sindermann. Academic Press, New York.

Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Certain Fish Pathogens, 3rd edition. 1985. K.H. Amos, editor.Fish Health Section, American Fisheries Society, Corvallis, OR

Protozoan Parasites of Fishes. 1992. J. Lom and I. Dykova. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Systematic Pathology of Fish, 5th edition. 1989. H.W. Ferguson. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

Textbook of Fish Health. 1987. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ.

The Marine Aquarium Reference. 1992. M.A. Moe, Jr. Green Turtle Publications, Plantation, FL. The Pathology of Fishes. 1975. W.E. Ribelin and G. Migaki, editors. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

The Physiology of Fishes. 1993. D.H. Evans, editor. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. 1987. A.G. Heath. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

References on Fish Chemotherapeutics:

Chemotherapy in Aquaculture: From Theory to Reality 1992. C. Michel and D.J. Alderman, editors. Office of International Des Epizooties, Paris, France.

Handbook of Drugs and Chemicals Used in the Treatment of Fish Diseases. 1979. N. Herwig. Charles Thomas Publishing, Springfield, IL.

Fish Medicine. 1993. M. Stoskopf, editor. Appendix V, Chemotherapeutics. W. B Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA.

Fish Chemotherapeutics. 1988. Tropical Fish Medicine, The Veterinary Clinics of North America 18(2):331-348.

Textbook of Fish Health. 1987. Chapter 3, Control of Fish Diseases. TFH Publications, Neptune City,

NJ. Gratzek, J.B. and G.C. Blasiola. 1992. Checklists, Quarantine Procedures, and Calculations of Particular Use in Fish Health Management. Pages 301-315 in: Aquariology (master volume): The Science of Fish Health Management. 1992. J.B. Gratzek and J.R. Mathews, editors. Tetra Press, Morris Plains, NJ.

FishGuts was produced and published by Andrew Kane at the laboratories of the Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland at Baltimore, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, 10 South Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201-1192.

All inquiries may be addressed to A. Kane at the above address or by calling in the United States (410) 706-7230.


Multimedia production: Robert Gray, RG Media Pathology consultants: Renate Reimschuessel, Andrew S. Kane Parasitology consultant: Sarah L. Poynton Movie camera (3/4”): John Seebode Video microscopy: Andrew Kane

Video digitizing, compression and editing : Andrew S. Kane Video formatting: Victor Martin

Additional multimedia consulting: Cal Hisley, Victor Martin, Harry Yarnell, Steve Barkley, David Carter, Nick Tillotson, and Donald Price (Morpheus Rising Studios).

Histological and gross photographs were provided by Drs. Renate Reimschuessel and Andrew Kane at laboratories of the Aquatic Pathobiology Center, University of Maryland at Baltimore, School of Medicine.

Additional photographs and artwork was kindly provided by Dr. Sarah Poynton, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; Dr. Ken Olson, South Bend Center for Medicine Education, University of Notre Dame; Dr. David Cone, Department of Biology, St. Mary's University; Dr. John Gratzek, University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine; Dr. Howard Evans, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. Robert Reinert, University of Georgia School of Forest Resources; xxx and the Departments of Medicine and Education at the National Aquarium in Baltimore.

Music by Bruce Molesky (guitar) and Bob Gray (synthesizer??)

Support for this program came from an award from the Designated Research Initiative Fund (DRIF), Office of the President (Dr. Errol Reese); and the Office of Program Development, Department of Pathology at the University of Maryland at Baltimore.

Additional support came from the Office of Medical Education, University of Maryland at Baltimore; and RG Media, Baltimore, MD. All files were digitized, compressed, edited and incorporated into multimedia format on Macintosh Quadra models 840AV and 800 computers and a Power Macintosh 8500AV.





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